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Oil and Chemical Spills, Baawain, M., S., et.al., Encyclopedia of Environmental Health (Second Edition), Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, (2019), p. 750-757

Oil and Chemical Spills, Baawain, M., S., et.al., Encyclopedia of Environmental Health (Second Edition), Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, (2019), p. 750-757.

Oil and chemical spills, which reach coastal and marine environments through different sources, pose serious environmental threat due to the nature of the associated persistent contaminants. Millions of tons of oil and chemical spills have been released to the marine environment accidentally or intentionally. Consequently, huge environmental impacts have been recognized and studied by different researchers. This work tries to provide some cases of oil and chemical spills in the Middle East and other areas around the world. It tries to illustrate the negative effects of hydrocarbons and heavy metals, in intertidal and subtidal zones, on the marine environment and biota. Hence, it provides incentives for the adaptation of safe measures to reduce the threat of marine oil and chemical pollution. New procedures and equipment in oil exploration and transportation must be applied to ensure less pollution occurrence. Treatment plants should be constructed to deal with ballast water near the loading stations. Moreover, countries and concerned authorities must continue to update the environmental issues and records by setting strict laws and to continue encouraging and supporting environmental research and development.

Oil and Chemical Spills, Baawain, M., S., et.al., Encyclopedia of Environmental Health (Second Edition), Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, (2019), p. 750-757